Normal and abnormal in a complete blood count: how to read the results?

The health of any person requires attention and constant care. Unfortunately, disappointing statistics show that severe and unexpected diagnoses are being made more and more often and at a younger age. Oncology is also "getting younger" and manifests itself in 60% of cases more often than a few years ago. That's why it's so important that a consultation with a doctor becomes a regular routine, even if you feel great, even if you have no health complaints. And a referral from a doctor for a biochemical blood test can accompany a consultation at . Let's consider what the result shows below.

What can a complete blood count reveal?

Clinical (general) analysis is the key initial stage of the examination. It shows the number of blood cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels (i.e., it indicates the ratio of liquid and cellular blood parts).


-red blood cells should be from 4.3 to 5.7;

-hemoglobin from 120 to 179 g/l;

-hematocrit from 39 to 49%;

-platelet count should be in the range of 180-320;

-leukocytes in the range of 4 to 10;

-neutrophils from 47 to 72;

-lymphocytes from 19 to 37;

-monocytes from 3 to 12;

-eosinophils from 1 to 5;

-basophils up to 1.

To decipher the results of general tests, you should consult a therapist. You can always make an appointment online and get the necessary consultation on Zdravo.Life. If further consultation is required.

The data obtained may contain signs of anemia (the disease manifests itself in a lack of hemoglobin and red blood cells), inflammation, or even dehydration.

Such an analysis can also identify signs of viral or bacterial infections. 

It should be noted that depending on the laboratory, the test standards specified in the forms may differ by a certain number of units. It is also common to use abbreviations or English.

The abbreviations can be as follows:

-rbc (red blood cells, i.e. red blood cells);

-wbc (white blood cells, i.e. lymphocytes);

-plt (platelets);

-gra (granulocytes (neutrophils);

-mid (this is an indicator of the sum of the average cell size (monocytes, eosinophils, basophils are called);

-hgb (hemoglobin).

If the results show an increase in lymphocytes, a viral infection can be suspected, if neutrophils are elevated, then a bacterial infection is suspected. 

Eosinophils may be elevated in parasitic diseases and allergies. If the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is exceeded, we can talk about significant inflammation.

Often, a detailed blood test, the decoding of which allows you to establish the most accurate diagnostic conclusion, is carried out in several stages by different specialists. There is no need to be afraid of this.

What information is provided by a biochemical blood test?

Biochemistry is a recognized diagnostic method. Any doctor knows what a biochemical blood test shows. Thanks to this analysis, specialists are able to obtain complete information about the functioning of internal organs and systems, about the state of



-lipid metabolism.

Also, the data obtained can be used to assess the functioning of internal organs, identify deficiencies and understand the body's need for certain substances and trace elements. Assess the condition of the thyroid gland. If necessary, you can also make an appointment with an endocrinologist.

Biochemistry provides a huge number of indicators. It can be comprehensive, or it can be performed to obtain a specific indicator/indicators that the doctor needs (for example, regarding trace elements, vitamins, lipid profile, creatinine, etc.) Much depends on the type of biochemistry performed. 

Detailed interpretation of blood test results

Biochemistry abnormalities can be diagnosed as a result of tests for




-protein (total) 



-bilirubin (total).

Also (if necessary), the levels of alpha-amylase, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ACL-O (antistreptolysin-O), C-reactive protein, serum iron, troponin, sodium, Cl, rheumatoid factor, Mg, ferritin, K and Ca, ferritin, folic acid, vitamins of various groups (B, A, D, K1, E, C, etc.) are determined.

The indications for biochemistry are determined exclusively by the attending physician.

What does a coagulogram mean and how does it determine blood density?

A comprehensive blood test, or coagulogram, allows you to detect blood clotting disorders in a timely manner. It proves the effectiveness of hemostasis, detects or denies serious disorders in the circulatory system, and diagnoses the likelihood of blood clots at early stages. 

It is prescribed on the eve of surgical interventions in order to exclude blood loss or hypercoagulability. Also, the analysis is performed in case of frequent bleeding and to control the treatment of varicose veins, thrombosis and other diseases. 

Biochemical analysis is carried out to diagnose infectious and somatic problems that affect internal systems and organs, their functioning. It is usually recommended for

-liver damage (it can manifest itself in jaundice of the mucous membranes and/or skin, changes in the color of urine and feces, stable bitterness in the mouth, itching of various parts of the skin (this is not the key));

-hormonal secretion disorders (sharp weight loss or gain without any reason, metabolic disorders)

-diabetes (thirst, dry mouth, sudden weight loss, increased fatigue);

renal problems and pathologies (poor urination, significant swelling, problematic urine tests, pain of various formats in the renal projections);

-joint pain symptoms, inflammation (or signs of inflammation) of the joint bag, difficult and reduced movements;

-suspicion of blood diseases (may be manifested in pale (noticeable) skin and similar anemic signs, dizziness);

-suspicion of pathological processes of the digestive system (abdominal pain, inflammatory signs of the pancreas, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, belching, constipation or diarrhea, flatulence);

-cardiac or vascular pathologies (significant blood pressure surges, slowing or acceleration of the pulse, pain in the heart area, numbness of the left (especially) hand);

-signs of salt and water metabolism disorders (these include seizures, dehydration, etc.).

Obtaining biochemistry results is necessary not only for diagnosis, but also for monitoring the effective results of prescribed drugs and similar treatments. Additionally, it is recommended to carry out such a test plan to monitor the condition of patients in the dispensary or during a physical examination.

Such tests are mandatory before surgical procedures and interventions. They are often included in the preoperative package.

It should be noted that for prevention purposes, doctors recommend checking the main indicators of blood biochemistry once a year.

What are the standards for blood tests for children?

When a patient is still young, he or she cannot complain, tell what is bothering him or her, and a drop of blood from a finger can refute or confirm the fears of a specialist and parents.

The form can only be deciphered by a specialist. the data below is for reference only.

-Hemoglobin - 240-150 depending on age

-Red blood cells - 7.6-3.5

-Reticulocytes - 3-51

-Platelets - 160-490

-ESR - 2-4

-White blood cells - 8.5 - 24.5

How to detect blood sugar level with the help of the test?

The test is also called a glucose tolerance test. First, blood is taken on an empty stomach, then a glucose intake is performed (for a child 1.75 g per kg of weight, for adults 75 g is dissolved and given in tea). After 2 hours, another sample is taken. And compare. Sugar should be up to 7.8 mmol/l maximum.

What can a blood test for vitamins tell you?

Of course, it allows you to understand which vitamins are sufficient and which are lacking. It is necessary to prepare for the analysis. The patient can learn the rules from the doctor. If the preparation is not done correctly, the results may be unreliable. This will complicate and prolong the diagnosis.

The doctor should consider what medications the patient will be taking for a week or two before the test. Some, if necessary, are temporarily canceled. It is not advisable to have rectal examinations, ultrasound, medical procedures, X-rays, even massage and physiotherapy the day before.

The patient should 2 days (days) before:

-refrain from consuming foods that may contain alcohol, and even more so from alcohol;

-stop using dietary supplements, herbs, vitamin complexes (unless the doctor is aware of this).

Within 1 day, stop experimenting with exotic dishes, stick to the usual diet without smoked, spicy and excessively fatty foods.

You should also avoid overloading for about a day (possibly more), and avoid going to the bathhouse, gym, and/or swimming pool.

For 8 hours, refrain from everything except a small amount of water (non-carbonated). Smoking is restricted. You should definitely not smoke an hour before the test.

In case of unforeseen stress, you should rest and calm down at least a quarter of an hour before the test.

The blood is taken by a manipulation nurse. There is no clear rule about the room. Therefore, the procedure is performed directly in the office, ward or reception area. The blood is taken from a vein (most often) in the area at the elbow bend. The skin is treated with an antiseptic solution. Then a vacuum system with a test tube is used. Until the blood flow stops, an alcoholized swab is pressed firmly against the puncture, and the arm is kept bent.

It usually takes up to 2 days to get the result. However, if the results are needed urgently, the cito symbol is added to the name of the test. That is, there is no need to be afraid of it. Norms are usually indicated directly on the form for convenience. Decoding is performed exclusively by the specialist who issued the referral. 

The analysis is carried out on equipment used by modern experts, the results are obtained quickly, the quality is confirmed (ISO laboratory certificate), the cost is affordable, and the conditions are as comfortable as possible.


Q: What are the main indicators of a complete blood count and what do they mean?

A: Normally

-red blood cells should be from 4.3 to 5.7;

-hemoglobin from 120 to 179 g/l;

-hematocrit from 39 to 49%;

-platelet count should be in the range of 180-320;

-leukocytes in the range of 4 to 10;

-neutrophils from 47 to 72;

-lymphocytes from 19 to 37;

-monocytes from 3 to 12;

-eosinophils from 1 to 5;

-basophils up to 1.

To decipher the results of general tests, you should consult a therapist. 

Q: How to prepare for a complete blood count and what factors can affect the results?

A: On the recommendation of the doctor, some medications may be canceled for a while, and it is not advisable to perform rectal examinations, ultrasound, medical procedures, X-rays, even massage and physiotherapy the day before. Violation of the established regimen can significantly affect the normal values during the analysis.

Q: What are the most common abnormalities in a complete blood count and what diseases can they indicate?

A: A complete blood count helps to identify a large number of abnormalities, namely: hematopoiesis disorders, acute or chronic inflammatory processes (bacterial or viral), allergic reactions, and disorders of the body's reactive response.

Опубліковано: 18.12.2023 1499

Омелянчук Руслана Анатоліївна

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Many health problems can be diagnosed and prevented in the early stages. In order to timely detect negative changes and symptoms as well as to prevent the consequences, it is necessary to do a complex check-up. Doctors recommend doing it annually, starting from the age of 18, no matter the gender, age, and lifestyle.

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